The 10,778 acre Kirwin NWR is located in the rolling hills and narrow valley of the North Fork of the Solomon River in north-central Kansas.
The Refuge lies in an area where the tall grass prairies of the east meet the short grass plains of the west. As a result of this merging of prairies and plains, grasses and wildlife common to both habitats are found on the Refuge. Over 10,000 migrating waterfowl can be seen on the Refuge during fall through early winter.
Other migratory birds, including the endangered whooping crane, can be found on the Refuge.